Dog Obedience Training Guide: Mastering the Art of Canine Communication

by | Training

New Dog Tips is reader-supported. Some links may be affiliate links. We may earn a small commission, at no cost to you, if you purchase a product or take an action via these links.

Dog obedience training is an essential aspect of responsible pet ownership. A well-trained dog is a happy and content pet and makes for a more harmonious household. Obedience training teaches your dog how to communicate with you and follow your instructions, which can be crucial in potentially dangerous situations. Furthermore, proper training strengthens the bond between you and your canine companion, making life more enjoyable.

Dog obedience training has numerous benefits for both the dog and the owner. Training provides mental stimulation, promotes good behavior, and improves socialization skills for the dog. For the owner, training reduces stress, enhances safety, and allows for more enjoyable outdoor activities. Additionally, a well-trained dog is less likely to exhibit destructive behaviors, which can save you from costly repairs or replacements of damaged items.

This dog obedience training guide will cover various aspects of training your dog, including understanding canine body language, basic commands, and advanced training techniques. It will also discuss common challenges that may arise during training and offer tips on addressing them. With this comprehensive guide, you’ll be well-equipped to build a strong foundation of obedience and communication with your furry friend.

Understanding Dog Behavior and Communication

Canine body language

Tail wagging

Tail wagging is a common way for dogs to communicate their emotions. A wagging tail can indicate happiness, excitement, or even stress. Pay attention to the speed and position of the wag: a slow, low wag often signifies relaxation or submission, while a fast, high wag may suggest excitement or agitation.

Ear positioning

A dog’s ears can provide valuable insight into their emotional state. Ears perked up and forward indicate alertness or curiosity, while ears pulled back can signify fear or submission. Relaxed ears that hang to the side suggest a comfortable and content dog.

Facial expressions

Dogs also communicate through facial expressions, such as raising their eyebrows, wrinkling their forehead, or baring their teeth. A relaxed dog may have soft eyes and a slightly open mouth, while a fearful or anxious dog might show the whites of their eyes and have a tense jaw.

Barking and vocalizations

Barking is another way dogs communicate with their owners and other dogs. Different barks can signal emotions or needs, such as fear, excitement, or a warning. Other vocalizations, like whining, growling, or howling, can also convey messages, so it’s crucial to understand and interpret these sounds correctly.

The role of scent in communication

Scent plays a significant role in dog communication. Dogs have a highly developed sense of smell, which they use to gather information about their environment and other animals. Urine marking, for example, is a form of scent communication used to establish territory or convey social status.

Interpreting your dog’s signals

Pay close attention to your dog’s body language, vocalizations, and scent signals to understand their needs and emotions. By accurately interpreting these cues, you can respond accordingly and foster a strong bond based on trust and effective communication.

Pretty young black dog gives paw on hand

Training Basics

Positive reinforcement

The power of rewards

Positive reinforcement is a highly effective training method that rewards your dog for desired behaviors. This approach helps dogs associate good behavior with positive outcomes, increasing the likelihood of repeating those behaviors.

Types of rewards

Various rewards can be used in positive reinforcement training, including treats, toys, and praise. The key is to find what motivates your dog the most and use it to reinforce their good behavior. Treats should be small and easy to consume, while toys and praise should be engaging and meaningful to your dog.

Shop Customer Favorite Treats at Chewy!

Timing and consistency

For positive reinforcement to be effective, delivering rewards immediately after your dog exhibits the desired behavior is crucial. This helps your dog make a clear connection between the behavior and the reward. Consistency is also vital—reward your dog every time they perform the correct action during the initial training stages.

Clicker training

The science behind clicker training

Clicker training is a form of positive reinforcement that utilizes a small device that makes a distinct clicking sound. The clicker serves as a “bridge” between the desired behavior and the reward, allowing for precise communication between you and your dog. Clicker training is based on the principles of operant conditioning, which teaches dogs to associate actions with specific consequences.

How to use a clicker effectively

To use a clicker effectively, start by “charging” the clicker—click the device and immediately provide a treat, repeating this process multiple times until your dog associates the sound with a reward. Once the association is established, use the clicker to mark the exact moment your dog performs the desired behavior, followed by a reward. Over time, your dog will learn to associate the click with the correct action and the subsequent reward.

Training equipment

Leashes and harnesses

A proper leash and harness are essential for effective dog training. They provide control and safety while allowing your dog to feel comfortable during training sessions. Choose a leash and harness appropriate for your dog’s size and temperament. Shop Leashes and Harnesses at Amazon

Treat pouches

Treat pouches are handy for keeping rewards easily accessible during training sessions. A good treat pouch should be easy to open and close, allowing you to quickly deliver treats to your dog while maintaining focus on the training. Shop Treat Pouches at Amazon

Training toys

Training toys, such as tug or fetch, can be used as rewards during positive reinforcement training. These toys can also help keep your dog engaged and focused during training sessions, making learning more enjoyable for you and your pet. Shop Tug Toys at Amazon

Essential Obedience Commands


The “sit” command is one of the most basic and essential obedience commands. To teach your dog to sit, hold a treat close to its nose and slowly raise it above its head. As your dog follows the treat with their eyes, their bottom should naturally lower to the ground. When they sit, click or say “yes” and give the treat as a reward.


The “stay” command teaches your dog to remain in place until you release them. Start with your dog in a sitting position, then say “stay” and hold your hand out with your palm facing them. Take a step back and if your dog stays in place, click or say “yes,” and then return to reward them. Gradually increase the distance and duration of the “stay” command over time.


The “down” command helps your dog learn to lie down on command. With your dog sitting, hold a treat in front of their nose and slowly lower it to the ground while saying “down.” As your dog follows the treat, they should lower themselves to a lying position. Click or say “yes” and reward them when they lie down.


The “come” command is essential for your dog’s safety, as it teaches them to return to you when called. To train this command, start with your dog on a leash. With some distance between you, say “Come” and gently pull the leash towards you. When your dog comes to you, click or say “yes” and reward them with a treat.


The “heel” command teaches your dog to walk at your side without pulling on the leash. Begin with your dog on a leash, and start walking while holding a treat by your side at their head level. Say “heel” and let them sniff the treat. As they follow the treat and walk at your side, click or say “yes” and reward them with the treat.

Leave it

The “leave it” command teaches your dog to ignore something they shouldn’t touch. Place a treat on the ground and cover it with your hand. When your dog tries to get the treat, say, “Leave it.” When they stop trying to get the treat and look away, click or say “yes” and reward them with a different treat.


The “off” command teaches your dog not to jump on people or furniture. When your dog jumps on something they shouldn’t, say “off” and gently guide them back to the ground; when all four paws are on the floor, click or say “yes” and reward them with a treat. Be consistent with this command; soon, your dog will understand not to jump on people or objects.

Training Techniques and Exercises


Luring is a training technique that uses a reward, such as a treat or a toy, to guide your dog into performing a specific behavior. By moving the reward in a particular direction or pattern, your dog will naturally follow it, eventually performing the desired action. Once the behavior is achieved, you can mark the moment with a click or verbal marker and reward your dog.


Shaping involves training your dog to perform a complex behavior by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable steps. Each step is rewarded, gradually building up to the complete behavior. This technique is particularly useful for teaching tricks or more advanced obedience behaviors, as it allows your dog to learn and progress comfortably.


Capturing is a training technique that involves waiting for your dog to perform a behavior and then rewarding them for it naturally. By consistently marking and rewarding the desired behavior, your dog will learn to associate it with a positive outcome and be more likely to act. Capturing can be especially helpful for teaching behaviors difficult to lure or shape.


Targeting teaches your dog to touch a specific object or area with a part of its body, such as its nose or paw. This technique can be used to train various commands and tricks or to build confidence in shy or nervous dogs. To teach targeting, start by presenting a target (e.g., your hand or a target stick) and rewarding your dog when they contact it. Gradually increase the complexity of the target or the desired behavior over time.

Proofing and generalization

Proofing and generalization involve teaching your dog to perform trained behaviors in various environments and under different conditions. This process helps ensure that your dog can reliably perform commands regardless of distractions or changes in the environment. To prove and generalize a behavior, practice the command in multiple locations, with varying levels of distractions, and at different times of day. Be patient and consistent, gradually increasing the difficulty as your dog becomes more proficient in the desired behavior.

Advanced Training and Tricks

Agility training

Agility training involves teaching your dog to navigate obstacles, such as jumps, tunnels, and weave poles. This advanced training activity provides mental and physical stimulation and strengthens the bond between you and your dog as you work together as a team. To begin agility training, start with simple obstacles and gradually progress to more complex ones as your dog’s confidence and skill level increase.

Scent detection

Scent detection training teaches your dog to locate specific scents, such as hidden treats or objects. This type of training is not only mentally stimulating for your dog. Still, it can also be helpful for practical purposes, such as locating lost items or participating in scent detection competitions. Begin by hiding treats or scented objects in easy-to-find locations, and then gradually increase the difficulty as your dog becomes more proficient at locating the scent.

Service and therapy dog training

Service and therapy dog training involves teaching dogs to assist individuals with disabilities or provide emotional support to those in need. These advanced training programs require high obedience, socialization, and specific task training. If you are interested in pursuing service or therapy dog training, consulting with a professional trainer or an organization specializing in this type of training is recommended.

Fun tricks and games

Teaching your dog fun tricks and games can be an enjoyable way to bond with your pet while providing them mental stimulation and exercise.

Roll over

To teach your dog to roll over, start with your dog in a “down” position. Hold a treat close to their nose and slowly move it circularly towards their shoulder, encouraging them to follow the treat with their head. As they turn their head and begin to roll, say “roll over” and reward them with the treat once they complete the roll.

Shake hands

To teach your dog to shake hands, start with your dog in a “sit” position. Gently lift one of their front paws while saying “shake” and reward them with a treat. Repeat this process until your dog begins to lift their paw on their own when you say “shake.”

Play dead

To teach your dog to play dead, start with your dog in a “down” position. Hold a treat close to their nose and slowly move it towards their shoulder, encouraging them to roll onto their side. As they roll, say “play dead” and reward them with the treat once they lie on their side. To add a more dramatic effect, you can teach your dog to “play dead” in response to a specific cue, such as a finger gun or the word “bang.”

Naughty dog pulling on a leash, happy woman not controlling the dog

Dealing with Common Behavior Issues

Jumping up

To address jumping up, teaching your dog that they only receive attention when all four paws are on the ground is essential. When your dog jumps, turn your back and ignore them, withholding any attention or affection. Once they have settled down, calmly praise and reward them. Consistency is crucial to help your dog understand the desired behavior.

Excessive barking

To manage excessive barking, first, determine the cause of the barking (e.g., boredom, fear, or attention-seeking). Once you understand the reason, you can address the issue more effectively. For example, if your dog barks due to boredom, provide more mental and physical stimulation through exercise and interactive toys. Teaching the “quiet” command can also help manage excessive barking.

Leash pulling

To resolve leash pulling, you can teach your dog the “heel” command, as mentioned earlier. Alternatively, you can use the “stop and go” method: when your dog pulls, stop walking and wait for them to return to your side before continuing. A front-clip harness can also help discourage pulling by redirecting your dog’s forward momentum toward you.

K9 Training Institute graphic for leash pulling

Resource guarding

Resource guarding involves a dog displaying aggressive or protective behavior around valuable resources, such as food or toys. To address this issue, use positive reinforcement to teach your dog that allowing others near their resources results in rewards. Start by approaching your dog while they have a resource, and then toss a high-value treat from a distance. Gradually decrease the distance, rewarding your dog for remaining calm as you get closer to the resource.

Separation anxiety

Separation anxiety occurs when a dog becomes overly distressed when separated from their owner. To help alleviate this issue, gradually desensitize your dog to your departures by leaving for short periods and gradually increasing the duration over time. Providing your dog with a safe and comfortable space, such as a crate or a separate room, can also help them feel more secure. In severe cases, consulting with a professional dog trainer or a veterinarian for additional support and guidance may be necessary.

Training for Specific Life Stages

Puppy training and socialization

Puppy training is crucial for establishing a solid foundation for your dog’s future behavior and should begin as soon as you bring your new pet home. Focus on basic obedience commands and crate and potty training during this stage. Socialization is also essential, as it helps puppies learn how to interact with other dogs, humans, and various environments. Expose your puppy to new experiences and stimuli, ensuring these interactions are positive and controlled.

Adolescent dog training

As your dog enters adolescence, they may exhibit new behaviors and push boundaries. This is a critical time to reinforce training and maintain consistency. Continue to work on basic obedience commands, and consider enrolling your dog in a group training class to reinforce positive behaviors and provide additional socialization opportunities. Be patient and persistent, as your dog’s attention span and energy levels may fluctuate during this stage.

Adult dog training

Training should continue throughout your dog’s adult life to ensure ongoing good behavior and mental stimulation. Consistently reinforce obedience commands and practice them in various environments to maintain reliability. Consider teaching your adult dog advanced training techniques and tricks or participating in dog sports to provide mental and physical challenges that keep them engaged and well-behaved.

Senior dog training

As your dog enters their senior years, their physical and cognitive abilities may decline. Adapting your training approach to accommodate your dog’s changing needs is essential. Focus on maintaining basic obedience commands while considering your dog’s physical limitations. Be patient and understanding, as senior dogs may require more time to learn or remember commands. Keep training sessions shorter and less physically demanding, but continue to provide mental stimulation to help maintain cognitive function.

When a Dog Obedience Training Guide Isn’t Enough

Identifying when you need assistance

There are several situations in which seeking professional help might be necessary for your dog’s training:

Choosing the right dog trainer

Finding the right dog trainer is crucial for your dog’s success. When choosing a trainer, consider the following factors:

  • Experience: Look for a trainer with experience in dealing with your dog’s specific issues or training goals.
  • Training methods: Ensure the trainer uses positive reinforcement and force-free methods that align with your training philosophy.
  • Credentials: Check for certifications from reputable organizations, such as the Certification Council for Professional Dog Trainers (CCPDT) or the International Association of Canine Professionals (IACP).
  • Recommendations: Seek referrals from friends, family, or veterinarians to find a trusted professional.
  • Communication: Choose a trainer who communicates effectively and is willing to answer your questions and address your concerns.

Dog training classes and workshops

Group dog training classes and workshops can benefit you and your dog. They provide opportunities for socialization, help reinforce good behavior, and allow you to learn from other dog owners facing similar challenges. When considering a group class or workshop, ensure the trainer follows the criteria in section B. Additionally, verify that the class size is small enough to ensure individualized attention and that the class environment is safe and well-managed.

Online Classes

To provide more specific options, consider the online classes offered by “Brain Training for Dogs.” This platform provides a comprehensive curriculum that focuses on improving your dog’s mental agility and obedience, all from the comfort of your home. This can be an excellent choice if you prefer a self-paced, flexible training schedule. The classes are designed to stimulate your dog’s cognitive functions through fun and engaging games, promoting improved behavior. You can read our full Brain Training for Dogs review here.

Free Workshop

The K9 Training Institute’s Free Online Workshop is an extraordinary opportunity to learn practical dog training skills from experienced professionals. Presented by Dr. Alexa Diaz, Ph.D., a Lead Animal Behaviorist, and Eric Presnall, Lead Presenter, and Trainer, this 45-minute workshop is designed to transform your dog’s behavior using the same secrets used to train service dogs.

Read our full review of the K9 Training Institute

Dr. Diaz brings over 20 years of experience training service and emotional support dogs for individuals with various physical and mental disabilities. Eric Presnall, previously the host of the popular Animal Planet TV show “Who Let the Dogs Out,” brings his vast knowledge of dog training techniques and unique insights into animal behavior.

Participants will learn critical training methodologies for various common issues, including housebreaking, leash training, and correcting behaviors like barking and jumping. The workshop focuses on using body language and creating a bond between the dog and its owner to ensure obedience. The training techniques presented apply to all dog breeds and age groups, making it an invaluable resource for any dog owner.

This free online workshop goes beyond simple command following; it promotes a deep, understanding relationship between you and your dog, resembling the extraordinary bond seen between service dogs and their human partners. However, please note that participation in this workshop does not certify your dog as a service dog—it only aims to help you train your dog to behave as calmly and obediently as one.

Previous workshop participants have successfully implemented the methods taught, regardless of their dog’s age or breed. The training techniques shared in this free workshop are rooted in scientific research and have helped over 2.7 million dogs of varying sizes, breeds, and ages. Join now to learn how to transform your dog into an obedient, well-behaved companion.


Beautiful woman demonstrating labrador retriever behavior in field.

Final Thoughts

Mastering the art of canine communication and dog obedience training is a rewarding journey that strengthens the bond between you and your dog. You can create a well-behaved and happy companion by understanding your dog’s behavior, utilizing positive reinforcement techniques, and addressing specific training needs at different life stages. Remember that consistency, patience, and persistence are essential; don’t hesitate to seek professional help.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How long does it take to train a dog?

The time it takes to train a dog depends on various factors, such as the dog’s age, breed, temperament, and the complexity of the behavior being taught. Generally, basic obedience commands can take a few days to several weeks to teach. However, consistent training and reinforcement are necessary to maintain these behaviors throughout your dog’s life.

How do I know if my dog is learning?

Signs that your dog is learning include increased responsiveness to your commands, decreased undesired behaviors, and the ability to perform trained behaviors reliably in various situations. Keep in mind that progress may be gradual, and setbacks are normal. Be patient and consistent, and celebrate your dog’s successes.

Can you teach an old dog new tricks?

Yes, older dogs can learn new tricks and behaviors. However, remember that senior dogs may require more time and patience, and training sessions should be tailored to accommodate any physical limitations.

How do I deal with a stubborn dog?

Dealing with a stubborn dog requires patience, consistency, and finding the right motivators. Ensure you use positive reinforcement techniques and reward your dog appropriately for desired behaviors. If your dog continues to be stubborn, consider seeking professional assistance to help identify and address any underlying issues.

What if my dog isn’t food motivated?

If your dog is not food motivated, try using alternative rewards, such as praise, petting, or toys, to reinforce desired behaviors. Identifying what your dog values most will help make training more effective and enjoyable.